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What is Grey Market Premium? GMP of IPO Prices, Gains & Calculation

What is Grey Market Premium? GMP of IPO Prices, Gains & Calculation
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Imagine strolling through the bustling streets of Gaffar Market in Delhi or exploring the vibrant alleys of Heera Panna Market in Mumbai. These renowned marketplaces have become synonymous with grey markets. Here eager shoppers can find a range of electronic goods before their official release. Interestingly, a similar concept exists in the realm of finance, particularly in the world of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs). Just as these physical grey markets offer early access to sought-after electronics, the Grey Market Premium (GMP) IPO offers investors an opportunity to gauge the demand and potential value of newly issued shares even before they are officially listed on the stock exchange. The GMP full form in share market stands for Grey Market Premium. 

Therefore, today, we will explore the world of the latest IPO GMP (Grey Market Premium) and how it influences the IPO landscape. Let’s begin by learning what is grey market premium of IPO. 

What is Grey Market IPO?

The Grey Market, also known as the parallel market, is an unofficial and clandestine arena where investors trade shares and applications before they are officially listed on the stock exchange.

In this intriguing space in India, transactions are conducted in cash and in person. This is done without any support from third-party entities like stock exchanges or SEBI. Key terms to remember in the Initial Public Offering (IPO) Grey Market are Kostak and Grey Market Premium. Now that we know what GMP means in IPO, let’s learn more about what are Grey Market Stocks. 

What are Grey Market Stocks?

A grey market stock involves unofficial trading of a company’s shares by traders before its official IPO. Typically, a select group of individuals manages the grey market, which operates on trust. It’s worth noting that trading grey market stocks in India is legal but unofficial. Such transactions remain unsettled until official authorized trading begins.

What is Grey Market Premium in IPO or GMP?

The Grey Market Premium (GMP) is the additional amount at which IPO shares are traded in the unofficial market before they officially debut on the stock exchange. In simple terms, it’s where company IPO shares are bought and sold outside the stock market.

GMP offers insight into how the IPO may perform when it lists. For example, if a company offers an IPO at Rs. 1000, and the grey market premium stands at around Rs. 20, we can anticipate the IPO to list at approximately Rs. 1020. While not always reliable, in most cases, the GMP serves as a reasonably accurate indicator for the IPO’s listing price.

What is the GMP of IPO?

Grey Market Premiums (GMPs) of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) refer to the difference in price between the issue price (the price at which shares are offered to the public) and the price at which the grey market stocks trade on the grey market prior to their official listing on the stock exchange. In simple terms, the premium represents the additional value investors are willing to pay for IPO shares before they are officially traded on the secondary market

For example, ABC Company recently announced its initial public offering (IPO) with an issue price of ₹20 per share. Prior to the official listing on the stock exchange, the grey market started trading the shares unofficially, and the IPO grey market price reached ₹25 per share. Now, this indicates a latest IPO grey market premium (GMP) of ₹5 (₹25 – ₹20). 

This market isn’t governed by SEBI, unlike the primary and secondary markets. It runs on the basis of trust and relations rather than rules and regulations. The GMP of IPO is essentially determined by market forces, reflecting the demand and supply dynamics of the IPO shares in the grey market. However, you can also research the upcoming IPO GMP. Now that we know the GMP meaning in IPO, let’s explore the Types of Trading possible in the Grey Market. 

Types of Trading in the Grey Market

You can categorize grey market trading into two types:

  1. Buying or selling IPO shares before they hit the stock exchanges.
  2. Trading IPO applications at specific rates or premiums.

Moreover, since these funds are managed passively, you won’t have to worry about a fund manager making a wrong move.

How Does IPO Grey Market Work?

The covert world of grey market trading operates outside official stock exchanges and regulatory bodies like SEBI. Let’s explore its inner workings.

Imagine this: a company’s upcoming IPO attracts two investors, Mr. A and Mr. B. Mr. A applies for shares in the retail category, uncertain about his allocation. In contrast, Mr. B, determined to secure shares, bypasses formal channels.

Mr. B contacts a grey market dealer to buy lots from the IPO, negotiating an offer with Mr. A: an extra Rs 100 per share above the IPO price, contingent on an allocation.

This guarantees Mr. A a Rs 100 profit per share, irrespective of the listing price. Mr. B gains ownership if Mr. A secures the allocation. Upon allocation, the dealer instructs Mr. A to sell to Mr. B at the agreed price. If the IPO’s listing price surpasses Rs 100 per share, Mr. B profits; otherwise, the situation reverses. This defines the dynamic world of grey market trading. Now that we know what is GMP in share markets, let us also figure out how to calculate it. 

How are the IPO Grey Market Trades Settled?

In low market volume scenarios, you can pair transactions with a particular counterparty via off-market contracts. But in highly liquid markets, connecting with your preferred counterparty becomes challenging. Hence, grey market transactions are settled in cash, with the pre-open price established through the call auction process.

How to Calculate GMP of IPO?

Once you have understood ‘what is GMP?’, you can use the concept to decide whether to buy an IPO. The Gray Market Premium of IPO is a key indicator used to determine the demand and price of an IPO (Initial Public Offering) before it is officially listed on a stock exchange. Therefore, calculating the GMP involves comparing the IPO update price in the primary market with its trading price in the grey market. 

Hence, you can use the below-mentioned formula for calculating the GMP of IPO. 

GMPR = Gray Market Premium * Number of shares 

A Step-By-Step Guide to Calculate GMP of IPOs

To calculate the GMP of IPO, follow these steps:

  • Gather the Information: Before calculating the grey market premium, collect the information about the IPO grey market premium latest price and share price. 
  • Determine the GMP: To determine what is GMP in IPO, subtract the issue price from the IPO grey market price.  For example, if the issue price is ₹100 per share and the IPO grey market price is ₹102 per share, the GMP IPO would be ₹2 per share.
  • Calculate the GMP Percentage: Divide the GMP by the issue price and multiply by 100 to calculate the GMP percentage. According to the example above, the GMP IPO percentage is (2 / 10) x 100 = 20%.

How to Trade IPO Shares in the Grey Market?

Trading IPO shares in the grey market involves investors applying for shares through IPO, which carries financial risk. These investors, also known as sellers, may receive shares below the issue price. Buyers, on the other hand, see value in these shares and acquire them before IPO allocation, placing orders at a premium through grey market dealers. Dealers then contact sellers to sell their IPO stocks at a premium. Alternatively, sellers can opt to sell their IPO shares directly to the dealer. Once the dealer receives the application details, they notify the buyer of the purchased shares. If shares are allocated to the seller, they can choose to sell or transfer them to the buyer’s Demat account. If no shares are allocated, the deal is automatically cancelled.

What is Kostak Rate?

In simpler terms, when an IPO is oversubscribed (i.e., the number of applications received exceeds the number of shares available for allocation), investors who are allocated shares may have the option to sell their application to other interested investors at a premium. This premium is known as the Kostak Rate.

The Kostak rate is generally quoted as a fixed amount. Thus, this varies based on factors such as the demand for the GMP of IPO, the reputation of the company, and overall market conditions. It is typically agreed upon between the buyer and the seller of the IPO application.

What is Subject to Sauda?

As per the Kostak rate, the Subject to Sauda on the application is the amount agreed upon when investors receive firm allotment on their IPO Application. Engaging in Subject to Sauda allows one to obtain this amount upon allotment; otherwise, the agreement is canceled. Profit cannot be predetermined as it depends on the allotment. For example, if an allotment is obtained and the application is sold for approximately ₹8,000, but the profit rises to around ₹12,000 on listing day, the seller owes ₹4,000 to the buyer.

What are the Factors Affecting IPO GMP in the Stock Market?

The GMP of IPO is influenced by a number of factors, including:

  • Demand and Supply: If there is high demand for an IPO, the GMP of IPO will likely be higher. This is because investors are willing to pay a premium for shares that they believe are undervalued or have the potential to appreciate in value.
  • Valuation: The GMP of IPO is also influenced by the valuation of the company. If the market believes that the company is undervalued, the GMP will likely be higher.
  • Market Sentiment: The overall sentiment in the stock market can also influence the GMP. If the market is bullish, the GMP of IPO will likely be higher.
  • Company Fundamentals: The GMP of IPO is also influenced by the company’s fundamentals. If the company has strong financials and a good business model, the GMP rates will likely be higher.
  • Promoter’s Track Record: The track record of the company’s promoters can also influence the GMP of IPO. If the promoters have a good track record of running successful businesses, the GMP will likely be higher.
  • IPO Size: The size of the  IPO can also influence the GMP. If the IPO is large, the GMP will likely be lower. This is because there will be more shares available to trade, which will reduce demand.

Important Features to Consider About GMP IPO

The following are a few key features and considerations of GMP IPO meaning that must be utilized:

  1. Engage in unofficial grey market transactions involving IPO market investors and stockbrokers.These transactions are built on mutual trust.
  2. Find out what’s the grey market premium today. 
  3. Get valuable insights by reading our IPO analysis before applying for an IPO.
  4. Grey market rates are determined through market research or expert sources.
  5. Trading in the Grey Market is illegal, and we strongly discourage it.
  6. The Kostak Rate is the premium received by selling your IPO application to someone else off-market, even before the issue is listed.
  7. Be cautious about subscribing to the IPO kostak rates at a premium, as the premium may fluctuate before listing.
  8. Base your subscription decision solely on the company’s fundamentals.

How Does the GMP of IPO Impact the Listings?

The grey market premium of IPO indicates the level of investor interest and demand for the stock before it begins official trading. It affects the IPO listings in a positive and negative way. A positive premium suggests higher demand and potential upward price movement, while a negative premium indicates lower demand or possible downward pressure on the stock’s price.

How Can You Use Grey Market Information When Applying for an IPO?

IPO Grey market information can be used in a number of ways. Here are a few examples:

  • To Gauge the Demand for the IPO: The gray market premium of IPO is a good indicator of the demand for an IPO. If the GMP of IPO is high, it indicates that there is strong demand for the IPO. 
  • Assess the Risk of an IPO: The grey market premium can also be used to assess the risk of an IPO. If the GMP of IPO is low, it indicates that there is less demand for the IPO. This could be a sign that the IPO is risky. 
  • To Determine the IPO Listing Price: The SME IPO grey market premium can also be used to determine the listing price. If the GMP of IPO is high, it indicates that the IPO is likely to list at a premium to the issue price.

What are the Risks and Challenges that You Should Be Aware of?

When using grey market information when applying for an IPO, it’s important to be aware of the following risks and challenges:

Lack of Official Regulation

The grey market operates outside the official regulatory framework, and the information available may not always be reliable or accurate. Therefore, relying solely on grey market information carries inherent risks.

Volatility and Speculation

IPO Grey market prices can be highly volatile and subject to rapid fluctuations. They may not necessarily reflect the actual trading prices once the stock is listed on the official exchange. 

Allotment Risk

While a high grey market IPO premium may indicate strong demand, it does not guarantee allotment of shares. IPO allotments are typically determined by various factors, including the number of shares available, oversubscription levels, and the allocation methodology employed by the company. 

Overvaluation Risk

Relying solely on the grey market premium IPO can lead to the risk of overvaluing an IPO. It’s essential to conduct thorough research and analysis of the company’s fundamentals. As well as their industry dynamics, and overall market conditions to assess its intrinsic value. 

Liquidity and Exit Challenges

Investing in the grey market for IPO shares involves trading in unofficial markets. Exiting or liquidating positions in the grey market may not be as seamless as trading on official exchanges. 

Legal and Regulatory Considerations

Participating in the grey market may involve legal and regulatory risks. Some jurisdictions may have restrictions or prohibitions on grey market trading, and engaging in such activities could be in violation of local laws or regulations.

To Wrap It Up…

In conclusion, the grey market premium (GMP) provides investors with a glimpse into the demand and sentiment surrounding an Initial Public Offering (IPO) before it starts trading on the official stock exchange. 

The GMP reflects the difference between the IPO grey market price and the IPO price. This indicates that the premium investors are willing to pay for IPO shares. A high GMP suggests strong demand and potential price appreciation. On the other hand, a low or negative GMP may indicate weaker demand or downward pressure on the stock’s price.

Ultimately, the GMP latest IPO serves as an indicator of market sentiment, but prudent investors should exercise caution and rely on a comprehensive evaluation of the IPO’s merits before making investment decisions.


1. What is IPO GMP?

In an IPO, investors are willing to pay an additional value, known as the Grey Market Premium (GMP), which is the GMP full form in stock market, before shares officially trade on the secondary market.

2. What is the effect of GMP on IPO?

GMP (Grey Market Premium) provides insight into market sentiment for an IPO before the stock exchange lists it.

3. What happens if IPO GMP is high?

The GMP does not directly affect the actual IPO price. If the GMP of IPO is high, it indicates that there is strong demand for the IPO.

4.  Is GMP a good indicator?

People who are active in the IPO GMP shares may be just like retail investors. Although this depends on their level of expertise and knowledge. The GMP is not always a reliable indicator and can be volatile.

5. Is GMP accurate for IPO?

The accuracy of the grey market premium is influenced by share demand, supply, and investor sentiment. When demand for shares is high, the latest SME IPO GMP update rises, which may signal a promising IPO listing.

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