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What is Face Value of Shares in the Stock Market?

What is Face Value of Shares in the Stock Market?
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Imagine you’re starting a collection of special coins. Each coin has a face that shows its value. Just like that, stocks have something called “face value.” In simple terms, face value is like the initial price tag on a share when a company starts, but the share can become more valuable over time based on how well the company does in the market. Therefore, let’s understand the concept of the face value meaning in shares in the stock market.

What is Face Value Meaning in Share Market? 

Face value definition is the financial term that represents the stated value of a security, set by the entity that issues it. It is the price at which the security was originally issued and is typically set by the issuer. 
It characterizes the fixed price at which a company’s stock is initially offered during an Initial Public Offering (IPO), allowing investors to purchase a slice of the company. Similarly, bonds provide another avenue for companies to acquire capital. For bonds, it signifies the sum that the holder receives when the bond reaches maturity, usually in increments. The term “par value” or simply “par” is frequently used to refer to the face value of bonds.

Significance of Face Value in Share Market

The face value refers to and acts as a cornerstone. It has a high significance in share market or when it comes to market value and book value. 

The significance of a share’s face value extends to its utilization in the computation of crucial financial metrics such as earnings per share (EPS), price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, and return on equity (ROE). Additionally, it establishes the initial capital that a company raises through share issuance.

In a nutshell:

  1. Determines the present market value of shares.
  2. Helps in calculating premiums.
  3. Plays an integral role in profit calculations.
  4. Holds significance in the computation of interest rates.

Now that we know the meaning of face value of shares, let us look at the difference between face value and market value. 

Face Value vs. Market Value: Unveiling the Distinction

Face Value and Market Value are two important terms in the world of finance and investing. They play distinct roles in valuing securities like bonds and shares. Let’s break down the difference between face value and market value:

FeatureFace Value of ShareMarket Value
DefinitionThe nominal or dollar value of a security stated by the issuerThe current or original value of a security, based on supply and demand
When is it set?When the security is issuedAt any time, as the security is traded on the secondary market
Is it fixed?YesNo, it can fluctuate with supply and demand
What does it represent?The amount of money that will be paid to the holder of the security upon maturity (for bonds) or the amount of money that the company is worth (for stocks)The price that someone is willing to pay for the security
Is it important?Yes, it is important to know at face value of a security in order to calculate its yieldYes, it is important to know the market value of a security in order to make informed investment decisions

How Does Face Value Act as a Reference Point for Stock Pricing?

The face value of share helps us start understanding how much a share is worth from the beginning. It’s like saying, “Hey, this share started at this price.” Then, as the company grows and more people want its shares, the price might go higher than the par value of stock. 

Face value is often used as a reference point for stock pricing because it is the price at which the shares were originally issued. Investors will then consider factors such as the company’s financial performance, its future prospects, and the overall state of the stock market to determine whether the shares are worth more or less than their face value of share.

What is the Importance of Face Value?

Analysts use various profitability measures, including earnings before interest. The nominal value, also known as the face value of a company, plays a vital role in both stock market and accounting realms. Its significance lies in calculating premiums above par, determining the current market value of stocks, evaluating interest rates, and assessing profits.

Share or Bond Certificate

Companies assign a face value to shares and bonds, a crucial factor determined by various considerations. This designated value is prominently featured on share and bond certificates issued by the company when shares are sold in the market. These certificates detail important information such as face value, share class, and issue dates.

Assigning a share or bond par value holds significance for the company, aiding in the calculation of the accounting value of its shares, which, in turn, is reflected in the company’s balance sheet. Investors keen on trading stocks must refer to the par value of a stock or bond certificates to initiate transactions. Let us now further explore what is face value of a share with example and calculation. 

How Does the Face Value of a Share Matter to an Investor?

When you own and sell a share, the buyer inherits the same rights you had when you bought it. If the company faces financial troubles, shareholders receive nothing. Meanwhile, they enjoy dividends and voting privileges during shareholder meetings. As a shareholder, weigh whether this investment is more valuable than alternative uses of your money. Dividends reflect the company’s profits after expenses and taxes, while voting rights impact decisions made by the company’s leadership.

How Can the Face Value of a Share Influence Your Investment Decisions?

Understanding the face value of a share is essential for informed investment decisions. The par value represents the nominal value of a share as stated by the issuing company. While it doesn’t directly impact market price, it serves as a baseline for various financial metrics.

Investors often look at par value as an indicator of a company’s financial health. A low par value may suggest the company is cautious about overpricing its shares, potentially attracting a broader range of investors. On the other hand, a high par value might indicate a more established or confident company.

It’s crucial to note that par value alone doesn’t determine a stock’s worth. Market forces, earnings, and other financial indicators play a more significant role in share valuation. Investors should consider face value alongside comprehensive research to make well-informed decisions, recognizing that it’s just one factor among many in the complex landscape of stock investments.

Face Value Formula

The face value formula is expressed as:

Face Value of a Share = Equity Share Capital / Outstanding Share Numbers

Face Value Example

Let’s say a company issues a bond with a nominal value of ₹1,000. This means that the bondholder is essentially lending ₹1,000 to the company. The company agrees to pay a fixed annual interest rate of 5% on this bond.

In this scenario:

  • Par Value of the Bond: ₹1,000
  • Annual Interest Rate: 5%

Each year, the bondholder will receive an interest payment based on the par value and the fixed interest rate. The interest payment can be calculated as follows:

Interest Payment = Face Value × Annual Interest Rate

Interest Payment = ₹1,000 × 0.05 = ₹50

So, the bondholder will receive ₹50 as interest payment each year for the duration of the bond. When the bond matures, the company will repay the bondholder the par value of ₹1,000.

Thus, it’s important to note that the market value of the bond may fluctuate during its lifespan based on various factors that we’re going to discuss in the next section. Now that we know how to calculate par value of shares, let us look at a few key factors influencing the par value of shares. 

Factors Influencing Face Value of Share

The face value of stock or bond doesn’t consistently show its true market worth, as various factors like supply and demand have a significant impact. Here are several other factors influencing the value of shares. 

  • The company’s net worth: The par value of a share is often set at a level that is a fraction of the company’s net worth. This is because the company is not expecting to pay out the par value of the shares to shareholders upon maturity. 
  • The company’s future prospects: If a company has good future prospects, it may set a higher par value for its shares. This is because investors are willing to pay more for shares in companies that they believe are going to be successful.
  • The prevailing interest rates: When interest rates are high, investors are more likely to demand a higher par value of shares. This is because they are looking for a higher yield on their investment.
  • Dividend Payouts: These can affect dividend calculations. Companies with higher par value in finance may distribute higher dividends, attracting income-focused investors. 

Par Value in Case of a Stock Split

A stock split increases the number of shares and reduces the face value of each, making it more attractive for new investors. This can lead to a rise in shareholders, as more investors are likely to buy at the lower prices. While some may not see immediate benefits from purchasing split shares at a lower price, a potential reason for an increase in share price is that a stock split signals the market about the company’s upward share price movement before the split, leading investors to anticipate continued growth.

Is Face Value the Same As Par Value?

Yes, Face Value and Par Value are terms often used interchangeably, referring to the nominal value assigned to a financial instrument, such as a stock or a bond, by its issuer. Both terms represent the initial value of the instrument and play a role in accounting and legal contexts. While the two terms can be used synonymously, “par value” is more commonly associated with bonds, particularly in the context of fixed-income securities.

Importance of Par Value in Calculating Dividends

Companies share their profits with shareholders through dividends, calculated based on the par value of shares. For example, if a company with shares valued at Rs 200 announces a 50% dividend and has a face value of Rs 10 per share, each shareholder receives Rs 5 as the dividend per share (50% of Rs 10). It’s essential to note that dividends are determined by the par value of shares, not their market value.

What are the Common Misconceptions of Face Value in Stock Market?

​​There are a few common misconceptions about par value in the stock market. Now that we have explored what is face value in stock market, here are a few of the most common:

  • Par Value vs. Market Value: These aren’t the same. The Par value in accounting is the initial share price. On the other hand, while market value is the current trading price, it can differ significantly.
  • Face Value is the Amount of Money that an Investor Will Receive When They Sell Their Shares: It doesn’t determine sale proceeds. Selling above the par value of share means receiving market value and below it. 
  • Investors Will Receive When a Company is Liquidated: The par value of share isn’t what shareholders receive in company liquidation. Liquidation involves selling assets to pay debts, and the remaining assets are distributed based on share ownership and asset value.

What Is the Difference Between Face Value and a Bond’s Price?

The face value of a bond represents the sum the bond issuer commits to repay the bondholder at maturity. On the other hand, the bond price signifies the money an investor invests to acquire the bond. Unlike the unchanging par value of stock, the bond price varies due to factors like interest rates, the issuer’s creditworthiness, and time until maturity, causing fluctuations.

FeatureFace Value of SharePrice of a Bond
DefinitionThe amount of money that the issuer of the bond agrees to pay to the bondholder when the bond maturesThe amount of money that an investor pays to buy the bond
When is it set?When the bond is issuedWhen the bond is bought or sold on the secondary market
Is it fixed?YesNo, it can fluctuate based on interest rates, the creditworthiness of the issuer, and the time to maturity
What does it represent?The amount of money that the bondholder will receive when the bond maturesThe amount of money that the investor paid to buy the bond
Is it important?Yes, it is important to know the face value of a bond in order to calculate its yieldYes, it is important to know the price of a bond in order to make informed investment decisions

To Wrap It Up…

And there you have it, the fascinating world of par value unfolded! We’ve started from the point of stock and bond values. Consequently understanding how it’s like the first puzzle piece that helps us begin our investment journey.

In the past, the face value of shares served the purpose of preventing companies from selling stocks at prices lower than a set threshold. Acting as a reference point during times of limited data, it also safeguarded shareholders. For issuers, the par value of share establishes a projected value during share sales. Moreover, when it comes to calculating bond prices, it plays a crucial role.


1. What is the face value in share market?

Face value meaning in stock market is the nominal or par value of shares of stock. It is the price at which the share was originally issued by the company. Par value in share market is not the same as market value. Market value is the price that the share is currently trading for.

2. How is a share’s face value determined?

The Face Value of a share is determined by dividing a company’s net value, which is the contrast between its assets and liabilities, by the total number of issued shares.

3. Can par value be changed?

No, the par value of a bond cannot be changed. The par value of share is set when the bond is issued and it remains the same until the bond matures. However, the price fluctuates.

4. How Does the Face Value of a Share Affect the Stock Market Decisions?

While the face value of a share doesn’t directly impact stock market choices, it serves as a reference point for investors to assess share worth. These investors then analyze various factors to make a well-informed decision.

5. Is par value vs face value the same?

Yes. The par value of a financial instrument, such as a bond or stock, is its dollar value at the time of issuance. For bonds, this is known as the par value, representing the amount the issuer repays at maturity. In the case of stocks, the par value of stocks is the initial price set by the issuer upon issuance.

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